Research Facilities and Infrastructures
The Epsilon 5 is a fully integrated X-ray analysis system, combining a unique energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, with instrument control and analysis software.
Featuring a 3-dimensional, polarizing optical geometry, together with a 600 W Gd-anode X-ray tube and 100 kV generator, up to 15 secondary and polarizing targets and a high-resolution PAN-32 detector, the Epsilon 5 is designed for optimal performance across the periodic table. Characterized by highly precise, sub-ppm determinations the Epsilon 5 out-performs its rivals in medium to heavy metals analysis, targeting a wide range of elements, many of environmental significance.
A flexible X-Y sample changer with capacity for up to 133 samples is a standard, integrated feature. Measurements can be performed in vacuum or He atmosphere, for solid and liquid samples, respectively.
The power and flexibility of the Epsilon 5 software are directed through a simple wizard that gives the user full control of the instrument calibration and data handling. This provides the functionality and traceability necessary for laboratory and method accreditation.
A clean room is an environment, typically used in manufacturing or scientific research that has a low level of environmental pollutants, such as dust airborne microbes aerosol particles, and chemical vapors. More accurately a clean room has a controlled level of contamination & cross-contamination that is specifying by the number of particles per M3 at a specified particle size. According to an observation as per ISO-9 clean room, the ambient air outside in a typical urban environment, contains, 35, 000, 00 particles per M 3, of 0.5 μm and large in diameter.
Clean room is an environment in which the air quality, temperature and humidity in order to safe guard against dust and bacteriological contaminated particles, which exist naturally in the atmosphere. As per ISO-14644. It is a room in which the concentration of Air bone Particles, is controlled and which is constructed and used in a manner to minimize the introduction, generation and retention of particles inside the room and in which other relevant parameters, e.g. Temperature, Rlative Humidity, Air Pressure are controlled as necessary.
Therefore the processes have to be carried out in the clean room such that air borne particles are limited, the air flow pattern is regulated, and the number of changes of air per hour of the clean room is controlled. In addition, the temperature & humidity should be regulated as per requirement. The room is also relatively pressurized by air w.r.t. adjusted zone, so that no outside Air can in filter into the space. The special materials of construction are used so as to eliminate generation of any particulate matter within the conditioned space.
HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter) – These filters are extremely important for maintaining contamination control. They filter particles as small as 0.3 microns with a 99.97% minimum particle-collective efficiency.
CLEANROOM ARCHITECTURE – Clean rooms are designed to achieve and maintain a airflow in which essentially the entire body of air within a confined area moves with uniform velocity along parallel flow lines. This air flow in called laminar flow. The more restriction of airflow the more turbulence. Turbulence can cause particle movement.
FILTRATION – In addition to the HEPA filters commonly used in clean rooms, there are a number of other filtration mechanisms used to remove particles from gases and liquids. These filters are essential for providing effective contamination control.
Laminar flow, also known as streamline flow, which are a family of curves that are instantaneously tangent to the velocity vector of the flow, occurs when a fluid or gas or Air flows in parallel layers with absolutely non divergence from either layer. Laminar air flow workstations will have laminar Air flow, which would be the opposite of turbulent air flow. Both the pattern of air flow is shown below.
Air flow pattern for ‘Turbulence - Air flow pattern for Laminar Air Flow
To maintain clean room, particulate for air through, the use of HEPA & ULPA filters employing laminar or Turbulent air flow principles. Laminar, or unidirectional, air flow systems direct filtered air down word in a constant stream towards filters located on walls near the clean room floor or through raised perforated floor panels to be recirculated.
Preparation of Clean room:
Inside the clean zone area, surrounding the breaks wall, 2.5 to 3 mm thick, double skin pup insulated laminated FRP/Glass Fiver sheet wall to be erected, by maintaining the minimum gap of 25mm in between the bricks wall and insulated wall,( the thickness of the pup insulated sheet wall to be at least 25 mm), to protect the clean zone from Leakage and decapitation of temperature. All partition wall of the Clean Room to be prepared by above mentioned double skin pup insulated sheet walls, thickness 25 mm. Where applicable ,above the 39 inches height from the floor of the partition wall,8mm thick vacuumed, Toughened glass of 2ft X 2ft block to be used to continuing the partition wall up to 7 ft. height of the Partition wall, and the rest of the above wall i.e. up to 8 ft. again to be cover up by insulated wall. All surface of the walls as well as the partition walls to be finished properly, without any cracks, fleece, etc. All the joints to be properly fill up by using appropriate resign or so. All corners are to be making up properly by “Coving” of appropriate radios for protecting the clean zone from deposition.
Buehler’s Lapro 24” Slab Saw has a powerful 1.5Hp (1.1kW) motor which is designed for the Petrographer and Lapidarist that sections large samples. Using the 24″ (610mm) Segmented Rim Diamond Blade, the cutting depth is 9″ (228mm). The cast iron carriage-visejaw runs on round stainless steel rails. Its screw drive system has three adjustable feed rates of x″ (4.8mm), 4″ (6.4mm) and a″ (9.5mm) per minute on a three rung step cone pulley. The Lapro® Slab Saw contains a bronze clutch cam engage/disengage lever actuated system.
Located at the bottom of the saw, there is a sloped reservoir and drain for ease of sludge/coolant removal. The lubrication coolant system uses water soluble or petroleum based coolants. Buehler has also installed air shock locking hood cylinders for lifting and lowering the hood safety.
Dimensions Height (lid closed) - 48″ (1220mm); Height (lid open) - 80″ (2030mm); Width - 37″ (940mm); Length (Front to back) - 68″ (1730mm).
The 8000D SPEX Dual Mixer/Mill is an efficient two-clamp laboratory mill. The 8000-series Mixer/Mills have been used for pulverizing rocks, minerals, sand, cement, slag, ceramics, catalyst supports, and hundreds of other brittle, often hard samples in the 10-gram range.
Functionally described as a shaker mill or a high-energy ball mill, the 8000D Dual Mixer/Mill is capable of rapidly shaking containers back and forth several thousand times a minute. This multi-purpose mill is capable of rapidly reducing hard, brittle samples to analytical fineness, blending powders, or making emulsions. It is also very effective for mechanical alloying.
With two clamps for increased throughput, the 8000D also features a variable-range electronic timer, sleek modern design, forced-air cooling, a safety interlock, and a choice of steel, tungsten carbide, agate, zirconia, silicon nitride, alumina, and plastic vials, which are purchased separately.
The vial, containing the sample and a ball or balls is secured in the clamp and swung energetically back and forth. The back-and-forth shaking motion is combined with lateral movements of the ends of the vial, so that the vial appears to be describing a figure-8 or infinity sign as it moves. The length of that swing is the same as the internal length of the vial, about two inches. With each swing of the vial the ball impacts against the sample and the end of the vial, both milling and mixing the sample. Because of the amplitude and velocity of the clamp’s swing, each ball develops fairly high G-forces, enough to pulverize the toughest rocks, slag and ceramics.
The dual clamps of the 8000D Mixer/Mill not only allow twice as many samples to be ground in a given time, but they also move in balance, reducing vibration and extending the life of the mill’s components. A fan keeps the motor and clamp mechanisms cool during operation.
Quality results immediately. Get resistivity, temperature, and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) monitoring results in real time - no waste of water.
Smart dispense. 33% faster flow rate than the leading competitive unit's published specifications, Cascada units dispense up to 2 liters per minute.
Adjustable flow rate. Dispense drop-by-drop or full stream.
No need for calibration modules. Dispense drop-by-drop or full stream.
Cartridge identity technology prevents errors. Provides enhanced quality assurance data. Electronically tagged cartridges prevent incorrect cartridge fitting and potential leaks. Data is displayed on the control monitor showing cartridge number and recommended change out date.
Comprehensive sanitation. Unlike many competitive systems, Cascada's entire fluid pathway is included in the automated disinfection process ensuring complete sanitization. Data tagged sanitization blocks prevent other operations during sanitization process.
Longer column life by incorporating full spectrum UV photo-oxidation technology for oxidation of organic contaminants at 185 nm and radiation at 254 nm, which breaks down DNA, thereby killing bacteria. The ultra-microfiltration filter removes colloids and bacteria. The purified water has extremely low levels for inorganic and organic contaminants for the most demanding high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), ion chromatography, solid phase extraction, and other UV spectrometry applications.
Water Purity AN-water
Resistivity at 25 °C 18.2 MΩ-cm
Bacteria < 1 CFU/mL
Particles 0.05 µm ultra-micro filter
Flow Rates Up to 2 L/minute
Inside each system, the dual purification cartridge packs incorporate high quality organic absorbents, ion exchange resins, and membrane processes to purify the water to 18.2 M -cm in order to meet ASTM Type 1, ISO 3696, and USP27 specifications. Both models feature a pure water recirculation system to maintain consistent peak quality.
Models feature operational LCD displays for power on, process on, intermittent operation, recirculation, smart dispense adjustable flow rate, dispense flow rate, sanitization, and feed water flush. Units feature adjustable audiovisual alarms.
Pre-treated water enters the system and is pumped through the primary purification pack. The first purification pack removes most of the impurities from the water and the intermediate water quality sensor then measures the resistivity of the water from the first pack to determine when it needs to be replaced. Purified water flows directly through the UV chamber where it is exposed to intense UV radiation at wavelengths of 254 and 185 nm to provide continuous bacterial control and photo-oxidation of residual organic impurities. The second temperature compensated quality sensor provides data for TOC monitoring.
Any remaining ionic and organic impurities are removed by the second polishing purification pack. The 0.05 µm ultra-microfilter removes bacterial impurities as well as particles. Final water resistivity and temperature are measured before dispense.
Water within the unit is recirculated through the purification system to maintain purity. An intermittent recirculation can be used overnight in "sleep mode." An optional 0.2 µm point-of-use (POU) filter is provided to protect the outlet from bacterial contamination.
As system microscope the Leica DM1000 it is well suited not only for clinical microscopy, but for basic research microscopy applications as well. It offers optimum optical performance and ergonomics with easy to use controls which are comfortable to operate.
The Leica DM1000 laboratory microscope can be configured to fit your physical requirements using a variety of observation tubes, ergonomic modules, and integrated adjustable controls. The unique height adjustable focus knobs and easy to change stage controls are examples of how you can customize your Leica DM1000 laboratory microscope to make it comfortable for you.
The Leica DM1000 laboratory microscope can also be configured to fit your application. Whether it be for Cytology, Hematology, or basic Pathology, the Leica DM1000 laboratory microscope can be configured with a variety of Optics and contrast techniques, including fluorescence. The bright 30 watt halogen illumination gives you an even field of view with accurate color. Koehler illumination is available for critical control of the contrast, or you can select the prefixed Koehler illumination to make it easy.